Mohamed Ali Adraoui



Titolo del progetto di ricerca: The History of the US Foreign Policy towards the Muslim Brotherhood


Ph.D in Political Science, Sciences Po Paris, 2011

Awards, Fellowships, Qualifications

Marie Sklodowska Curie Fellow, Georgetown University and London School of Economics, September 2019-August 2020

Senior Research Fellow, National University of Singapore, Middle East Institute, August 2015-September 2017

Max Weber Fellow, European University Institute, Florence, September 2013-August 2015

Teaching experience

Scuola superiore meridionale

2020                         Doing Research in Global History (PhD Seminar)

Sciences Po Paris

2008-2010              Middle East Politics

Institute of Political Studies in Grenoble

2012-2013              Political Theory

Research languages

French, English, Arabic

In the last decades, various Islamist groups have been in opposition to certain regimes but also risen to positions of prominence and power. This project aims to examine the relations between the US and the broad canvass of personalities and movements identifying themselves as proponents of Islamism1 as observable within the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood (MB). Principally, this project is meant to understand the mechanisms of American foreign policy towards the political and social phenomena of Islamism, by focusing on the history of the US policy towards the MB in Egypt. The project tackles the issue of how the United States has been dealing with the main Islamist movement in the biggest Arab country for a century.

In order to conduct the research project, I have conducted a historical investigation based on State Department and Presidential archives and sources that detail how US foreign policy practitioners have interacted with Islamism over the course of several decades. I have then second compared rhetoric and strategy with acts in the contemporary state of play by examining interviews, analyzing discourses and studying actions towards the Egyptian MB undertaken in the name of US foreign policy.


2020                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali.  Salafism Goes Global: From the Gulf to the French Banlieues. New York: OxfordUniversity Press.

2020                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali.  Comprendre le salafisme. Paris: L’Harmattan.

2013                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali.  Du Golfe aux banlieues. Le salafismé mondialisé. Paris: Presses universitaires de France.


edited volumes

2018                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali, ed.  The Foreign Policy of Political Islamist Parties: Ideology in Practice. Edinburgh:Edinburgh University Press, and New York: Oxford University Press

2015                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali, ed.  Les islamistes et le monde. Islam politique et relations internationales. Paris:L’Harmattan.


journal articles

2021                          Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Islam in Saudi Arabia’s Foreign Policy” Orient. German Journal for Politics, Economics and Culture of the Middle East II/62.

2019                          Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “The Obama Administration and the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in the Arab Revolutions: Taming Political Islam?” International Politics 56, 4: 551-567.

Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “The Unfinished History between America and the Muslim Brotherhood.” Current Trends in Islamist Ideology 24: 95-109.

Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “The United States and the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood: Understanding a Chaotic History.” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs [online]:

Part I and part II.

Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “The Jewish Issue in Islamic Radicalism: Historicity, Impact and Evolutions.” Journal of Historical Sociology 32, 2: 275-291.

Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “The Case of Jabhat al-Nusra in the Syrian Conflict: Towards a Strategy of Nationalization?” Mediterranean Politics 24, 2: 260-267.

2018                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Salafisme quiétiste et islamisme. Entre postislamisme et dépolitisation ?”Sociologies.

Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Aux sources de la radicalization. Les espaces sociaux du jihadisme” Esprit 448, 10: 75-83.

2017                          Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Borders and Sovereignty in the Islamist and Jihadist Thought: Past and Present.”International Affairs 93,4: 917-935.

This article made it onto the shortlist for the Early Career Prize 2017 awarded by the journal International Affairs.

Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Politiques étrangères et étranges politiques. Étude de la vision et de la pratique des relations internationales au sein de l’islam politique.” Études internationales XVLIII, 3-4: 443-468.

2016                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Salafisme(s) et violence. La construction historique d’une axiomatique de la radicalité. Des Frères musulmans à Al-Qaïda : d’une conception utilitaire de la violence à une vision organique ? ” Les Cahiers de la sécurité et de la justice 34: 156-161.

Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “ L’administration Obama et les Frères musulmans égyptiens dans les révolutions arabes.” Revue internationale et stratégique 104: 19-28.

2015                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Le chercheur, l’évènement et les médias. Du 11 septembre 2001 aux révolutions arabes.” Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée 138: 275-291.

2014                          Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “À l’épreuve du réel. Les islamistes et le monde. Une étude des politiques étrangères des mouvements islamistes. Mobilisation et reconstruction d’un référent idéologique.” Les Cahiers de la Méditerranée 89: 99-144.


book chapters

2022                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Theorizing Radicalization: The New Spaces of Jihadism.”. In Thierry Balzacq and Elyamine Settoul, eds., Radicalization in Theory and Practices, University of Michigan Press. Forthcoming (under contract).

Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Salafism in the West.” In Roberto Tottoli, ed. Routledge Handbook of Islam in the West. Routledge. Forthcoming (under contract).

2021                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Future and Prophecies in the World Vision of the Islamic State Organization: Between Offensive Millenarism and Precipitated Eschatologism.” In Jenny Andersson and Sandra Kemp, eds. Oxford Twenty-First Approaches to Literatures Futures, pp. 296-310. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

2020                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Islam, Politics and Legitimacy. The Role of Saudi Arabia in the Rise of Salafism and Jihadism over One Century.” In Jayeel Serrano Cornelio, François Gauthier, Tuomas Martikainen and Linda Woodhead, eds. Routledge International Handbook of Religion in Global Society, pp. 296-310. London: Routledge.

Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Islamism, International Relations and Foreign Policy: An Historical Overview and Theoretical Insights.” In Francesco Cavatorta, Lise Storm and Valeria Resta, eds. Routledge Handbook on Political Parties in the Middle East and North Africa, pp. 344-355. London: Routledge.

2019                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Salafism, Jihadism and Radicalization: Between a Common Doctrinal Heritage and the Logics of Empowerment.” In Johan Leman and Serafettin Pektas, eds. Militant Jihadism: Today and Tomorrow, pp. 19-39. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Between Religion, Warfare, and Politics: The Case of Jabhat al-Nusra in the Syrian Conflict.” In Peter Sluglett, ed. Violent Radical Movements in the Arab World: The Ideology and Politics of Non-State Actors, pp. 65-92. London: IB Tauris.

2018                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Islamists and the World: A Reality Check. A Study of the Foreign Policies of Political Islam Movements: Of the Use and Reconstruction of an Ideological Reference.” In Nassef Manabilang Adiong, Raffaelle Mauriello and Deina Abdelkader, eds. Islam in International Affairs: Politics and Paradigms, eds. Islam in International Affairs: Politics and Paradigms, pp. 169-183. London: Routledge.

Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “The United States and the Muslim Brotherhood in the Arab Revolutions.” InGeoffrey G. Gresh and Tugrul Keskin, eds. The American Foreign Policy and the Middle East: From American Missionaries to the Islamic State, pp. 201-212. London: Routledge.

Pall, Zoltan and Mohamed-Ali Adraoui. “Interviewing Salafis and Overcoming Mistrust in Middle Eastern and European Countries.” In Francesco Cavatorta and Janine A.Clark, eds. Political Science Research in the Middle East and North Africa: Methodological and Ethical Challenges, pp.135-144. Oxford: Oxford University Press


contributions to dictionaries, almanacs and yearbooks

2019                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Exporting their Religious Doctrines? The Cases of Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Morocco.” In IEMed Mediterranean Yearbook, pp. 319-321.

2011                          Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Islamism in the Sudan.” In American Foreign Policy Council, World Almanac of Islamism, pp. 352-360.


articles (non-peer reviewed)

2021                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Les États-Unis et les Frères musulmans. Un regard historique” Alternatives internationales. Forthcoming.

2015                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Une sociologie des jihadistes contemporains” Afkar/Ideas 45: 18-20.

2014                          Patétif, Delphine and Mohamed-Ali Adraoui. “Le monde arabe est-il condamné à ne pas émerger ?” L’ENA hors les murs 483: 16-19.


policy papers, testimonies, and op-eds

2018                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “The United States and the Muslim Brotherhood: A Century of Mistrust and Realism.”Jadaliyya.

Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali et alia.Between Salafism, Sectarianism and Violence : The New Faces of Radicalization.” Fondation maisons des sciences de l’homme/Carnegie Corporation New York. International Panel on Exiting Violence.

2017                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Jabhat al-Nusra in the Syrian Conflict.” Sustainable Security.

Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Comprendre le ‘soft-power’ salafiste de l’Arabie Saoudite.” The Conversation (Oct.4).

2016                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Les États-Unis et l’islam politique. Composer avec les Frères musulmans égyptiens dans les révolutions arabes.” Les dossiers du CERI.

Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Salafisme(s) et violence : vers une autonomisation du jihadisme ?” Le Monde (Aug. 10).

2015                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Back to the Future? The Rise of a ‘Stateless’ Middle East.” National University of Singapore, Middle East Insights, 133.

Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Salafism and Power: From Religion to Politics. A History of the Search for Orthodoxy.” European University Institute, Max Weber Paper.

2012                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Le converti à l’islam : nouvelle figure de la radicalité.” Figaro (Oct. 12).


book reviews

2017                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Jihad and Death: The Global Appeal of Islamic State. By Olivier Roy. London: Hurst/Oxford University Press. 2017.” Revista CIDOB d’Afers Internacionals 115:  199-204.

2015                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Radicalisation. By Farhad Khosrokhavar. Paris: Maison des sciences de l’homme. 2014.” Métropolitiques.

2014                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Whatever Happened to the Islamists? Salafis, Heavy Metal Muslims and the Lure of Consumerist Islam. Edited by Amel Boubekeur and Olivier Roy. London: Hurst/Oxford University Press. 2012.” Politique étrangère 2.

2012                         Adraoui, Mohamed-Ali. “Les islamistes au défi du pouvoir. Évolution d’une idéologie. Edited by Samir Amghar. Paris: Michalon. 2012.” Politique étrangère 2.